Early Morocco :
The written history of Morocco began about 1,000 BC when a people called the Phoenicians from what is now Lebanon sailed there. The Phoenicians were great traders and they founded trading posts in Morocco. The Phoenicians founded the city of Carthage in what is now Tunisia. Soon Carthage became the dominant power in the region. Meanwhile by about 400 BC the native Berber tribesmen formed the kingdom of Mauritania.
In 146 BC the Romans conquered Carthage and their influence in North Africa gradually grew. Finally in 42 AD the Romans annexed the kingdom of Mauretania. Morocco remained under Roman rule until the 5th century AD.
In 681 the Arabs began raiding Morocco and by 705 they were in control. The Arabs introduced Islam to Morocco and in 711 they invaded Spain. They soon conquered most of it. However Morocco soon broke up into a number of different kingdoms. In 789 a man named Idriss I founded a small kingdom and his son Idriss II made Fes the capital. In the following centuries Fes became a centre of culture.
In the 11th century Berbers called the Almoravids from what is now Mauritania advanced north and conquered Morocco. Then in the 12th century a people called Almohads rebelled against the Almoravids and they founded a new dynasty. Under the Almoravids Moroccan culture flourished. However in the 13th century the Almohads lost most of the Muslim territory in Spain. Only Grenada remained.
Furthermore in the year 1248 a people called the Merinids began to overthrow the Almohads although it was not until 1269 that they captured Marrakech and brought the old dynasty to an end. Then the same cycle followed. The Merinid dynasty eventually declined and was overthrown. The next Berber dynasty was called the Wattasids. They began to seize power in 1240 and they ruled all of Morocco by 1469.
The next Moroccan dynasty was of Arab origin. The Saadians captured Marrakech in 1525 and Fes in 1548. The Saadian dynasty reached a peak during the years 1578-1603 in the time of Ahmed el-Mansour, known as the Golden One. However after his death the dynasty declined.
Moulay Rachid 1664-1672 founded a new dynasty, the Alaouites. Under Moulay Ismail 1672-1727 Morocco was a strong, centralized state and dealt with European powers like England and France as equals. However in the 19th century Morocco grew weaker as European powers industrialized. Nevertheless during the 19th century Morocco remained an independent country.
Modern Morocco :
However in 1912 Morocco was forced to become a French protectorate. Naturally the Moroccans resented their loss of independence and the whole country was not subdued until 1934. However in 1942, during World War II the allies landed in Morocco and Roosevelt was sympathetic to the Moroccans. In 1944 a Manifesto of Independence was published and in 1947 the Sultan declared he was in favor of independence.
In 1953 the French deposed the Sultan but he returned in 1956. Morocco became independent in 1956.
Hassan II became king of Morocco in 1961 and he reigned until 1991. During the 1960s and 1970s Morocco suffered from political instability. A constitution was drawn up in 1962 followed by another in 1970. However the king survived 2 coup attempts in 1971 and in 1972. Then in 1981 there were riots in Casablanca.
In 1996 Morocco was given a new constitution and in 1999 Mohammed VI became king. Today the king Mohammed VI is leading Morocco toward both long-term stability and a greater degree of economic prosperity.
In July 2011 voters in Morocco approved a new constitution for the country. Today the population of Morocco is about 33 million.
Location, Geography, and Climate of Morocco :
Morocco is located in the northwestern corner of the African continent. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and by Mauritania and Algeria, both to the south and east.
Morocco's varied geography includes no less than four separate mountain ranges, in addition to lush river valleys, beautiful sandy coasts, and wide expanses of desert. The three most prominent mountain ranges, which run parallel to each other from the southwest to the northeast, are the Middle Atlas, the High Atlas, and the Anti-Atlas. The ascent of the country's highest peak, Jebel Toukbal (13,665 ft./4,165 m.), is a spectacular and not particularly difficult High Atlas trek.
The Moroccan coastline, which fronts onto both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, offers plenty of great beaches as well as a number of fascinating old coastal cities. In the southeast, Morocco's mountain ranges yield inexorably to the desolate expanse of the Sahara. The rivers that flow down this side of the High Atlas support long, narrow, and lush river valleys that resemble linear oases.
The climate in Morocco is reliably dry, although small amounts of rain do fall between November and March. Temperature varies considerably by season and locale. While the southern and southeastern desert regions can reach extremely high temperatures during the hot summer months, the higher altitudes of the mountains are cool in summer evenings and freezing in winter.
Most travelers find the early summer months to be the most comfortable time to visit, as rain is not a threat and temperatures are warm during the day and pleasantly cool at night.